Vitsand area

  Map symbols

- The Vitsand area, which is about three kilometers away from the main defensive line, contains three structures. From these three the structure 195 is above all, the most interesting one to visit, although not necessarily the easiest one to visit due to the terrain. The area has also contained a gun position during the Crimean War. Because of this, identifying the structures is difficult as the different structures from different time period have been mixed together. The oldest structures date from the Crimean War and the newest one from the Continuation War.

- Looking at the map symbols, machine gun nest with observation cupola, accommodation bunker/dugout for fifty men were planned along with a gun position to this area. From these three structures the gun position is by far the easiest one to find and notice in the area. The started construction is just that huge, that you cannot walk past it if you just find your way to the correct location. Most likely the huge size of the structure is explained by the fact that the structure is based to the gun position from the Crimean War. According to the map, it would have been constructed so that the guns located in that position could have fired along the channel, which leads towards Tammisaari. In this way this position along with the bunker 214, which can be found from the Skogby area, were protecting the entrances to Tammisaari.

- However the plan seems to have been changed a bit, as the gun position isn't facing completely along the channel, but is located more of a sideways, so that the guns are pointing more towards Odensö and towards the channel itself and not towards the direction of the channel. Still as far as I can see, the gun position wasn't completely finished, so it is hard to say how the position would have looked like when finished and to which direction the guns would have been facing. Still so much has remained in the area from dugouts, trenches and roads, that most likely the gun position was in use during the encirclement of Hanko.

- The right flank of the gun position does contain some structures, but only pits and earthworks remain in the area. Like the fortification map indicates, a machine gun nest was planned to the area and without a doubt the earthworks are remains from positions for the troops.

Swedish volunteer battalion, 1941 Hanko, For Finland

- There is also dugout remains in the area, which could have accommodated the fifty men, which was planned according to the map. There is also a huge pit behind the gun position on a high hill. The view from that position is excellent one to observe towards Björnholmen island, which is full of bunkers, AA-positions, machine gun nests and gun positions. Also imagining men working in that gun position some sixty to seventy years ago, the hill would have given a good view how everyone was working with the guns and to direct the work of the gun crews.

- All of the previously mentioned structures however have been built, using the old gun position from the Crimean War, which makes it difficult to identify different structures with full certainty.

- The other two structures in the area are the 459 and 202. Structure 459 was a command post. Today it is hard to locate the command post. There is a pit with a lot of small loose stones nearby which would seem to be the command post remains. Also near of the intersection, which can be seen north of the 459, is dugout remains which can be spotted easily from the road. Sixty men was planned to be accommodated in that command post, but no such single structure which could have accommodated such a huge number of men, can be seen in the area. Of course the many dugout remains together could have offered accommodation for sixty men.

- Structure 202 according to the map symbol was a dugout with a anti-tank gun shelter, which could have protected from shrapnel. The structure can be found from the forest and is in relatively good condition, although of course the wooden reinforcements have either decayed long time ago, or were removed when the Russians left from Hanko and everything useful was collected from Harparskog-line. Still the deep pit has remained in a very recognizable way in the forest. Over sixty years it has remained in the forest, nearly untouched.

- My own personal notes below are based on the situation in the defensive line, during the years 2005 and 2006.

Construction series 1xx

- 195 is the only structure from the construction series 1xx. A very powerful position, if it would have been constructed in a planned way, capable of protecting the entrance to Tammisaari.



Fortification card




Contains a large gun position. There has been a gun position already during the Crimean war.


Construction series 2xx

- Only one construction was planned to the Vitsand area from the series starting with a number two. The 202 was a dugout, containing anti-tank shelter and capable of protecting from shrapnel. Other dugout remains are visible near of the railroad crossing.



Fortification card






Construction series 4xx

- 459 was a command post and wasn't constructed in a planned way, as no single structure which could have accommodated sixty men, can be found from the area. Still many dugout remains are near of the roads and intersections.



Fortification card






Other constructions in the defensive line


Name Note

Cable box remains

Exactly similar remains as in Vimonböle area.

Anti-tank obstacles

Can be seen when driving in Leksvall road.

Trench line

Located near of Leksvall village. The distance from Vitsand to the trench line is some 4 kilometers. The distance to Tammisaari itself from the trench line isn't more than 5 kilometers.

Copyright © 2005, 2006 Kimmo Nummela